History of Kashmir and the Kashmir Issue
What is the origin of the name? The word “Kashmir” is a combination of two words “Ka” and “Shmir” which is taken from the Sanskrit language Ka=Water, Shmira= Desiccated Land.
- Jalood Bowa banned the flow of water at the point of Baramulla.
- People went to Kashiak an old man to ask him to pray for the flow of water so after the water completely flowed the land was desiccated and dried thus this dried land was called Kashmir.
Rulers of Kashmir:
- 686 years ruled by Hindus
- 480 years ruled by Muslims
- 27 years ruled by Sikhs
- 101 years ruled by Dograas
- 1846-1864 “1st anglo-Kashmir war
March 1846 treaty of Amritsar took place according to which Kashmir was sold out to Dograas Raja Gulab Singh for 75 Lac Rupees.
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Total 4 rulers of Dograas Reign i.e.
✓ Raja Gulab Singh (1846-1856)
✓ Raja Ranbir Singh (1856-1885)
✓ Raja Partap Singh (1885-1925)
✓ Raja Hari Singh (1925-1952)
Regions of Kashmir:
There are 6 regions of Kashmir. Three of which have been given to India.
- Jammu Kashmir
- Kashmir valley
- Ladakh (further 02 Districts) Leh & Kargi
Two regions were given to Pakistan:
- Gilgit Baltistan GB (58000 sq. km area)
- Azad Jammu & Kashmir as a result of the first Kashmir war against India in 1947, covering an area of about 13,297 sq. km area
Major William Alexander Brown captured these two territories and gifted them to Pakistan in Sep 1947.
In 1947 Sitara-e-Pakistan to the widow of Alexander Brown by then-President Leghari.
- One region was given to China named Aksai Chin about 37,555 sq. km area
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After the 1962 war of China against India, according to the 1963 agreement between China & Pakistan, Pakistan gave the land of 5,180 sq. km to China, and China in return gave the land of 2,700 sq. km to Pakistan this was the beginning of a new era of Pakistan-China Friendship.
Total 2 lacs, 22 thousand and 236 sq. km area of all 6 regions of Kashmir
Three wars were fought for the Kashmir cause.
- 26 Oct: 1947-48 instrument of accession by Raja Hari Singh
- Second war Sep: 1965
- Third war 1990
Population in the 6 regions:
The total Muslim population is 73.4% in all six regions.
Three regions of India:
- 95% Muslims in Kashmir valley
- 28% Muslims in Jammu but Hindus in the majority
- 48% Muslims in Ladakh but Buddhists in the majority
Thus, overall 57% of Muslims in 3 regions of India i.e. in the majority
Two regions of Pakistan:
- 98% Muslims in Azad Jammu & Kashmir
- 98% Muslims in Gilgit Baltistan
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Muslim population in the Chinese region of Kashmir:
- No Muslim population
In 1721-1949 are 562 princely states existed. According to the 1974 Act: 562 princely states were being given free hand to decide either they would join India or Pakistan. This is approved by King George of the chamber of Princes.
25 July 1947: Chamber of princes addressed Lord Mountbatten for the same clause for the independence of Pakistan but the people of those princely states asked about criteria to make their decision.
Three Parameters Set:
Lord Mountbatten gave 3 parameters to people of princely states to join with either India or Pakistan:
- Nearness/Proximity of that states
- On the will of people of that states
- On the basis of the religion of the people
- 900 miles Boundary of Kashmir with Pakistan
- 320 miles Boundary of Kashmir with India
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Thus, the proximity of the princely state of Kashmir supported its alliance with Pakistan.
Hyderabad state in the majority is Hindus but the ruler was Muslim who wanted to join Pakistan but Lord Mountbatten gave it to India.
Similarly, the case with Jonaghar and Jodhpur.
- 95% Muslim in Kashmir valley that is in favor of Pakistan
Role of Lord Mountbatten:
Mountbatten was asked Quaid-e-Azam to make him governor General but Quaid refused so as a result Mountbatten challenged him and said those who will live will see so the effect of this challenge could be seen in the history of Pakistan.
Its major example is Gurdaspur, which was to be given to Pakistan had 4 Tehsils:
- Shakargarh was given to Pakistan
- Pathankot was given to India unjustly by Lord Mountbatten
Three Battles Fought among Indo-Pak for Kashmir:
- 1999 (Kargil War)
What is the Kashmir Issue?
26 October 1947: Hari Singh performed to join India.
27 October 1947: Lord Mountbatten approved Raja Hari Singh’s performance.
- In 1947 Nehru Said to Liaquat Ali Khan that we will arrange General elections in Kashmir to know the choice and assent of the people of Kashmir.
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1st Jan 1948: Kashmir issue was taken to UN but still no referendum is materialized.
- Three Rivers: Indus, Jhelum, Chenab which enter Pakistan via Kashmir from India
India and Pakistan both have invested much money in Kashmir so, none of them is agreed to leave Kashmir up to its own choice.
Nehru promised PM Liaquat Ali khan to allow a referendum in Kashmir but never fulfilled.
Jinnah ordered general Dogras to march towards Kashmir but he refused.
What is the Solution?
The solution is to give independence to Kashmir but the commercial interests of both neighboring states, India and Pakistan will be lost. The most loss will come to Pakistan because of the rivers which entre in Pakistan like as Indus, Jhelum, Chenab in these rivers Pakistan was made own dams and those dams also supply energy in most area of Pakistan.
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