The purpose for creating NATO:
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is an alliance of European states and the United States of America. The sole purpose of this alliance was to stop communist Russia and to safeguard the European states from the spread of communist ideologies. In opposition to communism and to promote democratic values. This organization was established in 1949, and this organization was also the beginning of the Cold war.
In World War 2 Russia was an ally of Britain, France, and the USA, but at the end of the war, these countries had felt threatened that Russia by force can implement the communist ideology by force and had a plan to do so. Other than this from the USSR alliance, European states had a danger that it can attack the European country due to Expansionist planning.
How powerful is NATO? / The Might of NATO?:
This NATO alliance is the world’s strongest military alliance. The power of NATO can be analyzed that the 15 countries that had the largest world military budget 6 are NATO members The defense budget spent by states all over the world consists two-thirds of the NATO defense budget. Among the world’s top 10 economies 6 are included in NATO while in the top 25 economy economies 11 are NATO members. The more important provision about the agreement between NATO states is written in the 5th article of NATO which states that if any of the NATO states are being threatened by an adversary state or is under attack by an adversary state then in that situation all the ally states of NATO will respond to that and will retaliate against the adversary. Nowadays NATO Ally states are 30 in number. Means 18 more states are in this alliance. Other than 30 members partners states are also included in it which in time of need of cooperation with NATO and NATO. In 1952, Turkey and Greece had also joined it after initial founding members. In 1955, World War 2 victorious states UK France and the USA, and also Western Germany which was also under their influence was included in this alliance. Eastern Germany at the time was under USSR control in 1982 to Spain also getting included in the thing (alliance).
After the demise of the USSR in 1999, the Hungary Czech Republic, and Poland had also joined the network however these countries were part of the USSR communist bloc and what the members of the Warsaw pact. Eastern Germany after the fall of the Berlin Wall gets united with the west 1 and became a member of NATO. In 2004 joint of the furthermost and the States of ex-communist had joined NATO in which 3 Baltic States means Estonia Latvia and Lithuania which were officially the USSR States but got separated after the USSR breakup. Other than these Bulgaria, Slovenia, and Romania but also part of this alliance in which except Slovenia other 3 were the part of Warsaw pact in past. Montenegro in 2004 had joined NATO and the first member is North Macedonia which became a member in 2020.
Old Ally of Russia, Ukraine which had now not a good relationship with Rumania tried to join NATO. The other two countries of this region Bosnia and Herzegovina and Georgia had tried to join NATO which was once USSR former Allies.
The Warsaw Pact was made by USSR and in 1955 in response to NATO, the USSR first tried to keep unity among all European countries beyond this the divisional distinction that either they are communist or capitalist get united in all this alliance but USA UK, and France did not accept this demand. So USSR and other European countries signed the Warsaw pact.
In this agreement, countries other than Russia, Albania, East Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia are included at that time Slovakia way one country when now separated the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
In Sep 2001in response to the USA attack, NATO Article 5 was used and NATO members and partner states had the strength and had started a military campaign in Afghanistan. This was the largest operation in NATO history. The NATO army number was at first time 1 Lac 30 thousand. In 2004 in Iraq NATO had given training to the troops and provide services in the name of peace. This mission ended in 2011.
They are deployed less in numbers because here they had the only purpose of training and do operations. Like in Afghanistan only purpose of NATO states in Iraq, NATO states had no such permission. In Oct 2005 in the Pakistan earthquake, NATO had assisted Pakistan. NATO had developed a complete missile defense system in Europe in the name of the BMD system which is apparently for defense purposes but Russia had some reservations about it. NATO had a mutual ground surveillance system under which the allied countries has a constant Surveillance of their sea land and air. So that in case of an attack, an immediate response should be given. NATO is working on establishing the combined intelligence. In 1999, NATO in Kosovo war against Yugoslavia had played its military role, and due to which the NATO had bombarded the Yugoslavia army and forced them to move out of Kosovo. In 2011, the UN Requested NATO for the protection of civilians due to which NATO had conducted aerial bombing and operations against the Libyan army. The purpose of doing this was to keep the citizen protected from the Libyan army according to the NATO perspective.
How does NATO work?
The permanent Army of NATO is very less in number and all the militaries of member countries are included in it. In Brussels the representative of every member county is present. North Atlantic Council is a very important part of NATO, in which important decisions are taken and secretary-general of NATO. All the decisions are taken through consensus and whatever the decision is made is accepted by every member country. If there is a plan of military operation, the member countries according to their capacity have to send their military troops and after the end of the mission, the troop reaches the respective country. Routine and office work is done by the mutual funds according to the decided scheme or plan. Everyone has to contribute. But when there is a military mission then all countries have to spend with mutual understanding. The Rich countries have to spend more Troops but when any action is taken in response to article 5, every country has to put the fund in it. In 2006 the NATO member had decided that every member countries had to spend 2 percent on defense so that the entire alliance remains advantageous. Commonly NATO gets the highest finance for the USA. The US defense budget is huge than the collective budget of all other countries.
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